A Scandinavian black metal band from Norrköping, Sweden, Marduk was formed in 1990 by guitarist Morgan Steinmeyer Håkansson. With vocalist Andreas 'Dread' Axelsson, guitarist Magnus 'Devo' Andersson, bassist Rikard Kalm, and drummer Joakim 'Av Gravf' Göthberg rounding out the lineup, Marduk shocked the public with the title of its 1991 debut EP, Fuck Me Jesus, and returned in 1992 with the full-length album Dark Endless. These two releases both focused on topics like Satanism and blasphemy, two themes that would become hallmarks of Marduk's entire catalog. Axelsson and Kalm left the lineup after Dark Endless' release, with Göthberg assuming the band's frontman role and Roger 'B. War' Svensson joining the roster as Marduk's new bassist. 1993's Those of the Unlight introduced this new lineup and marked an expansion of the band's sound, replacing the death metal influences of Marduk's debut with more melodic sounds. 1994's Opus Nocturne cemented this melodic black metal sound and marked Göthberg's final appearance as the band's vocalist, with Erik 'Legion' Hagstedt taking his place for 1996's Heaven Shall Burn... When We Are Gathered. Albums like 1998's Nightwing, 1999's Panzer Division Marduk, 2001's La Grande Danse Macabre, and 2003's World Funeral followed, with Panzer Division Marduk introducing a new lyrical focus on World War II themes. Despite a series of lineup changes during the 2000s, Marduk continued to chart in multiple European countries. 2012's Serpent Sermon reached number 43 in Sweden and number 92 in Germany, while 2018's Viktoria reached number 10 in Germany, number 29 in Sweden, and number 17 in Finland. By the 2020s, the band had also started to chart in France, where 2023's Memento Mori debuted at number 119.