Few South American musicians have reached the rarefied level of Gilberto Gil, a greatly-loved musical innovator who went on to become Brazil's Minister of Culture. The son of a doctor, Gil was born in the industrial city of Salvador, but mostly raised in the country town of Itaçua, where he demonstrated his natural musical talent at a young age, initially playing drums, trumpet and accordion. Studying classical music in Salvador, he went on to embrace Brazilian folk song and was particularly influenced by the singer and accordion player Luiz Gonzaga. He then went on to play samba, tango and jazz and played accordion and vibraphone in his first band Os Desafinados. But, inspired by Joäo Gilberto, he decided to concentrate on the guitar. In 1963 he began collaborating with Caetano Veloso, playing bossa nova and traditional Brazilian material, wrote TV jingles and his song Louvaçäo became a hit single for Elis Regina. In 1968, influenced by The Beatles' Sgt Pepper, he recorded the landmark album Tropicália: Ou Panis Et Cirenses, which triggered the tropicália movement and had his first solo hit with Aquele Abraço. A satirical version of the national anthem caused outrage, however, and in 1969 both he and Caetano Veloso were arrested by the military, placed under house arrest and then forced to leave the country. Exiled in London, Gil was strongly influenced by reggae and also performed with many of the leading rock and jazz acts of the day. Returning to Brazil in the 1970s he pioneered an Afro-Brazilian style, studied African music and, working with Jimmy Cliff, introduced reggae to Brazil. He later moved into politics but in 2008 resumed his music career and was featured in the 2013 documentary Tropicália.